Skip to main content

The Coffee Roasting Process and Its Effects On The Products You Drink!

By Joe Leary/Principal/Lead Source Digital Marketer's & KYC Consulting on LinkedIn

Today I would like to explain just how much the roasting process effects the coffee we consume on a daily basis. I sincerely hope you find this article enjoyable, interesting and informative.

I am going to attempt to explain the 4 major roasting processes and what it does and doesn't do to the world's second most popularly traded commodity. Before I get started, there is something you need to know about coffee. When coffee is roasted it goes through a process, within that process the beans are altered by temperature and generally gas, LNG, electricity and even wood.

During this process the beans reach levels within that process that makes the beans, "crack". Depending on how light or dark they are being roasting they "crack either once or twice. This alters the flavor profile tremendously, so please keep that in mind while reading this article.

I have included some pictures, to visualize the type of finished product you see. I was actually amazed at the variation in roast shades even among the  exact titles searched for.

For instance, Double Roast looked like everything on the page! Pretty amazing. Well anyway, I hope you enjoy the article.


1. Light Roast- This is also referred to in the industry as, cinnamon roast, 1/2 City Roast or New England Roast.
Lighter roasted coffees are generally stopped immediately after the first "crack of the beans in the roaster. This cracking is generally a reaction to the beans losing some of its natural moisture and the result is the beans become larger. During the process the beans go from a green color to a yellowish hue and then finally a light brown shade. Many flavor experts believe that this is the best way to roast coffee and the reason is quite simple and straightforward. The argument is based on the fact that coffee is an agricultural product, which means the unique flavors are based on region, territory, temperature, humidity and altitude. These factors all have significant roles in what characteristics the beans ultimately possess. Many purists believe that the less you alter the raw product, the more the consumer can taste and enjoy the vast differences in how the coffee should taste. So if you take a coffee from a specific well known region such as, Java, Kenya, Hawaiian Kona, or Jamaican Blue Mountain to name a few, they believe that the longer and darker you roast the coffee, the flavors get muddled and the unique qualities melt away! All of the coffees mentioned above, roasted lightly have a very distinct flavor profile, that is unique to where they are grown. I have had the pleasure of trying all of them and more with this roast profile and I find it to be very true. As with anything though there are things you don't get, that some people may find even more pleasing. For instance, a coffee roasted at this level tends to lack some of the Body a slightly darker roasted coffee may have as well as some distinctive sweetness, which develops just before the second "crack" in the roasting process and possibly some overall complexity. But the coffee purists argue that those things mask the original flavor and are more about the process than the product. I can see their point.

Coffee Beans

2. Medium Roast- In the coffee industry this is also referred to as, Full City Roast, American Roast, regular or breakfast roast. This is the most popular style sold in the United States, and has been for many years. In a commercial roasting facility, this is achieved in a matter of minutes from the previously discussed light roasted coffee. This is the point, where the actual roasting process starts to impact the actual natural flavors and characteristics of the beans. The benefits of this level of roasting are significant and definitive. It will generally produce a sweeter cup profile and introduces what most people define as more body and a balanced acidity, all natural chemical components in coffee beans. The downside to that is it really does start to alter through a chemical change the distinct and original attributes of th beans country or region of origin. Which in effect, makes the beans taste more, "alike".#coffeeroastingfacts

Vienna Roast Coffee


3. Full Roast- Also known as Vienna Roast, Continental Roast etc.. This roast change occurs after the second crack of the beans in the roaster. This part of the roasting process also starts to alter the beans visual look, where they become slightly oily looking to the naked eye. At the end of this process the beans will display a slightly shiny finish to the roasted coffee. This process again alters the flavor of the coffee, where the coffee becomes slightly spicier, and some of the more subtle complexities are lost, but the trade off is this roast has a much more full bodied mouth feel. Many people prefer that "full-bodied" profile. It does however shift the process to much more impact about the roasting process as opposed to the pure raw material that entered the plant.

Starbucks roast Coffee

4. Double-Roast- Most people know this as French Roast. During a french roast process the beans will actually start smoking and the natural sugars within the coffee bean start to carbonize. This results in a final product that is very oily and shiny to the eye. Unfortunately, the flavor profile at this point has little or nothing to do with the beans, however good, you started out with. The common characteristics are a bit misleading also. A french roast coffee will have a smokey/sweet aroma, amazingly, you lose the full bodied flavor, yet the human palette will generally think the flavors are quite intense. Once this process is complete you have in effect roasted out all the inherent unique flavors of the beans, and none of the initial qualities are in the least bit recognizable. This process has nothing to do with the coffee and everything to do with how you can alter an agricultural product beyond recognition. I am not judging it is just a fact. There are quite a few people I know that love french roast coffee!! It is all speculative!!#howiscoffeeroasted

So in this case though, one could argue that you just about roast anything you want at the french roast level and get the same result!
I must admit that after being in the roasting industry for over 25 years, it still irks me when I see products that say "PREMIUM" French Roast or SUPER PREMIUM French Roast, but hey that's just me.
Anyway, I hope you found this article enjoyable, informative and helpful, if you are a coffee lover!!
In the coming weeks I am going to be focusing on the actual processing of the coffee, the farms and some different roasting and blending techniques.#coffeenews
Thank you for visiting and reading.

I certainly hope you have learned something and found the content interesting.

Coffee is not just a business, it is a passion and it is creative. It is like an art form. The possibilities are endless. That is the beauty of one of our most precious, delicious and addictive natural wonders!


I am a full time consultant, who spent 27 years in the coffee industry. Although coffee is obviously a real passion and a good part of my business comes from within that sector, I have acquired many other skills and experience more general along the way.

I am a full service business consultant, and I am confident that whatever your needs be, I can certainly make a difference in helping you reach your goals. I would welcome the opportunity to speak with any business owner or CEO that is in need of assistance, guidance, or just a fresh set of eyes.

I can be reached at 774-778-7670, or

I can help you if your business is distressed, looking to grow, in need of video marketing, website and SEO management, reputation management, business valuation, lead generation, marketing or anything else you need assistance with. I look forward to hearing from some of you.

I guarantee everything I do, and will not waste a moment of your time.

Thank you again. Reach out to me on LinkedIn also. I welcome the feedback and interaction.


Popular posts from this blog

The Art Of Creating A Great Coffee Blend

THE ART OF CREATING A GREAT COFFEE BLEND!This is pretty much where the rubber meets the road, in the coffee industry. Coffee blends make up the vast majority of successful products within this industry. Single Origins and Estate Coffees are wonderful, but, coffee blends are generally the mainstay of most consumers purchases. There are several reasons for that.
Today I want to explain and explore how you would go about finding the right coffee blend for you and, what goes into the process of roasting and blending coffee and the underlying reasons. I hope you find this enjoyable and entertaining. After all it really is the "Art" side of the coffee industry. It is also the down and dirty business side of the industry. Let's take a closer look at what goes into this process.

Most of you know that coffee is an agricultural product. With any product that is cultivated and grown, there are natural cycles that occur. Coffee is no different. Coffee is grown in very specific areas of…

How To Successfully Run A Commodity Based Business#commoditybusiness#freebusinessadvice

How To Successfully Run A Commodity Based Business I have over 26 years of experience in a commodity based business. As a matter of fact, it wasn't just commodities, it was the number 2 traded commodity on the planet, coffee. Although I will be referring to coffee in this article, this information will translate into any commodity based business.
One thing I do want to point out, that perhaps many haven't considered. Almost every business, if not every single business is affected in some way by commodities. Whether it is a meat packer buying boxes(by the way beef is a commodity), or a bakery packaging mini muffins in portion controlled lots. Yes, board to make boxes is a commodity, and many of the packaging materials a manufacturing facility uses is petroleum based. I could go on and on, but I just wanted to point out that understanding commodities and how to manage and minimize your exposure to wild price swings is an extremely important skill. So I'd like to share my philo…